This treatment usually involves several steps, including thorough cleansing, exfoliation, toning and moisturizing. In the beginning, dirt, makeup and excess sebum are removed from the face using a cleanser or lotion. This is followed by exfoliation, during which dead skin cells are removed and skin renewal is promoted. Exfoliation is followed by toning to help balance the skin's pH and close pores. Finally, a moisturizer or serum is applied to improve skin moisture and provide necessary nutrients. Primary skin care is key to maintaining healthy, soft and fresh skin, and is often recommended as a regular skin care routine.